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söndag 31 juli 2011

The Venice Biennale (Italian: Biennale di Venezia; also called in English the "Venice Biennial") is a major contemporary art exhibition that takes place once every two years (in odd years) in Venice, Italy. The Venice Film Festival is part of it. So too is the Venice Biennale of Architecture, which is held in even years. A dance section, the "International Festival of Contemporary Dance", was established in 1999.[1]

The first Biennale was held in 1895; during the first editions, decorative arts played an important role. The event became more and more international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries started installing national pavilions at the exhibition. After World War I, the Biennale showed increasing interest in innovative traditions in modern art. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there.

In 1930, control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government. In the 1930s, several new sections of the event were established: the Music Festival in 1930, the International Film Festival in 1932 and the Theatre Festival in 1934. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section.

After a six-year break during World War II, the Biennale was resumed in 1948 with renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European, and later worldwide, movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, pop art in the 1960s. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces.

The protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale; the Grand Prizes were abandoned and more emphasis went to thematic exhibitions instead of monographic ones. In 1972, for the first time the Biennale adopted a theme: 'work and behaviour'. The 1974 edition was entirely dedicated to Chile, as a major cultural protest against the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. New prizes - Golden Lions, like the awards for the Venice Film Festival - were installed; postmodern art entered the scene with increasingly varied and popular exhibitions.

In 1980 Achille Bonito Oliva and Harald Szeemann introduced "Aperto", a section of the exhibition designed to explore emerging art. Italian art historian Giovanni Carandente directed the 1988 and 1990 editions. A three-year gap was left afterwards to make sure that the 1995 edition would coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Biennale. The 1993 edition was directed by Achille Bonito Oliva. In 1995, Jean Clair was appointed to be the Biennale's first non-Italian director of visual arts[2] while Germano Celant served as director in 1997.

In 1999 and 2001, Harald Szeemann directed two editions in a row (48th & 49th) bringing in a larger representation of artists from Asia and Eastern Europe and more young artist than usual and expanded the show into several newly restored spaces of the Arsenale.

The 50th edition, directed by Francesco Bonami, had a record number of seven co-curators involved, including Hans Ulrich Obrist, Catherine David, Igor Zabel, Hou Hanru and Massimiliano Gioni. The 51st edition of the Biennale opened in June 2005, curated, for the first time by two women, Maria de Corral and Rosa Martinez. De Corral organized "The Experience of Art" which included 41 artists, from past masters to younger figures. Rosa Martinez took over the Arsenale with "Always a Little Further." Drawing on "the myth of the romantic traveler" her exhibition involved 49 artists, ranging from the elegant to the profane. In 2007, Robert Storr became the first director from the United States to curate the 52nd edition of the Biennale entitled Think with the Senses – Feel with the Mind. Art in the Present Tense. Swedish curator Daniel Birnbaum was artistic director of the 2009 edition, followed by Bice Curiger in 2011.

The Biennale has an attendance today of over 300,000 visitors.[3]

[edit] FormatThe formal Biennale is based at a park, the Giardini, that houses 30 permanent national pavilions. The number of countries represented is still growing. In 2005 China was showing for the first time, followed by the African Pavilion and Mexico ( 2007), the United Arab Emirates (2009), and India (2011).[4] The assignment of the permanent pavilions was largely dictated by the international politics of the 1930s and the Cold War. There is no single format to how each country manages their pavilion. The pavilion for Great Britain is always managed by the British Council while the United States assigns the responsibility to a public gallery chosen by the Department of State. The Giardini includes a large exhibition hall that houses a themed exhibition curated by the Biennale's director. Countries not owning a pavilion in the Giardini are exhibited in other venues across Venice.

In 2011 the countries are Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China(PR), Congo(DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. In addition to this there are two collective pavilions: Central Asia Pavilion and Istituto Italo-Latino Americano.

Initiated in 1980, the Aperto began as a fringe event for younger artists and artists of a national origin not represented by the permanent national pavilions. This is usually staged in the Arsenale and has become part of the formal biennale programme. In 1995 there was no Aperto so a number of participating countries hired venues to show exhibitions of emerging artists.
ArgentinaIn 1901, Argentina was the first Latin American nation to participate in the Biennale. In 2011, it was granted a pavilion in the Sale d'Armi, which it will restore. [5]

List of exhibitors in the Argentinian Pavilion:

1954 - Lucio Fontana
1958 - Lucio Fontana
1966 - Lucio Fontana
1968 - Lucio Fontana, Nicolás García Uriburu
1970 - Luis Fernando Benedit
1972 - Lucio Fontana
1978 - Lucio Fontana
1984 - Antonio Seguí
1986 - Marta Minujin
1995 - Jorge Orta
1997 - Ana Eckell
2001 - Leandro Erlich, Graciela Sacco (Curator: Irma Arestizábal)
2007 - Jorge Macchi, Edgardo Rudnitzky (Commissioner: Adriana Rosenberg)
2011 - Adrián Villar Rojas (Curator: Rodrigo Alonso)
[edit] AustraliaThe Australian Pavilion, designed by Philip Cox, was opened in 1988.[6] Australia’s participation at the Venice Biennale is managed by the Australia Council for the Arts.

List of exhibitors in the Australian Pavilion:

1954 - Sidney Nolan, Russell Drysdale, William Dobell
1956 - Albert Tucker
1958 - Arthur Streeton, Arthur Boyd
1978 - Ken Unsworth, John Davis, Robert Owen
1980 - Mike Parr, Tony Coleing, Kevin Mortensen
1982 - Peter Booth, Rosalie Gascoigne
1986 - Imants Tillers
1988 - Arthur Boyd (Australian Pavilion opens)
1990 - Trevor Nickolls, Rover Thomas
1993 - Jenny Watson
1995 - Bill Henson
1997 - Judy Watson, Yvonne Koolmatrie, Emily Kame Kngwarreye
1999 - Howard Arkley
2001 - Lyndal Jones
2003 - Patricia Piccinini
2005 - Ricky Swallow
2007 - Callum Morton, Susan Norrie, Daniel von Sturmer
2009 - Shaun Gladwell, Vernon Ah Kee, Ken Yonetani, Claire Healy & Sean Cordeiro
2011 - Hany Armanious (Curator: Anne Ellegood)
[edit] AustriaDesigned by Joseph Hoffmann with the collaboration of Robert Kramreiter, 1934 (restored by Hans Hollein, 1984).[6]

List of exhibitors in the Austrian Pavilion:

1978 - Arnulf Rainer (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1980 - Valie Export, Maria Lassnig (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1982 - Walter Pichler (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1984 - Christian Ludwig Attersee (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1986 - Max Peintner, Karl Prantl (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1988 - Siegfried Anzinger (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1990 - Franz West (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
1993 - Gerwald Rockenschaub, Andrea Fraser, Christian Philipp Müller (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
1995 - Coop Himmelb(l)au, Peter Kogler, Richard Kriesche, Peter Sandbichler / Constanze Ruhm, Eva Schlegel, Ruth Schnell (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
1997 - Die Wiener Gruppe (Friedrich Achleitner, Konrad Bayer, Gerhard Rühm, Oswald Wiener) (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
1999 - Peter Friedl, Rainer Ganahl, Christine and Irene Hohenbüchler, Wochenklausur (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
2001 - Granular Synthesis, Gelatin (Commissioner: Elisabeth Schweeger)
2003 - Bruno Gironcoli (Commissioner: Kasper König)
2005 - Hans Schabus (Commissioner: Max Hollein)
2007 - Herbert Brandl (Commissioner: Robert Fleck)
2009 - Elke Krystufek, Dorit Margreiter, Lois & Franziska Weinberger (Commissioners: Valie Export und Silvia Eiblmayr)
2011 - Markus Schinwald (Commissioner: Eva Schlegel)
[edit] BelgiumDesigned by Leon Sneyers, 1907 (totally restored by Virgilio Vallot, 1948).[6]

List of exhibitors in the Belgian Pavilion:

1997 - Thierry de Cordier
2007 - Éric Duyckaerts
2009 - Jef Geys
2011 - Angel Vergara, Luc Tuymans
[edit] BrazilDesigned by Amerigo Marchesin, 1964.[6]

List of exhibitors in the Brazilian Pavilion:

1958 - Lasar Segall
1966 - Sergio Camargo
1968 - Lygia Clark
1990 - Frida Baranek, Daniel Senise
1999 - Mauricio Dias, Walter Riedweg
2001 - Vik Muniz, Ernesto Neto (Curator: Germano Celant)
2003 - Beatriz Milhazes, Rosângela Rennó (Curator: Alfons Hug)
2005 - Chelpa Ferro, Caio Reisewitz (Curator: Alfons Hug)
2007 - José Damasceno, Detanico & Lain (Curator: Jacopo Crivelli Visconti)
2009 - Luiz Braga and Delson Uchôa (Curator: Ivo Mesquita)
2011 - Artur Barrio (Curators: Moacir dos Anjos, Agnaldo Farias)
[edit] CanadaThe Canadian pavilion was designed by the Milan-based architecture firm BBPR (Gian Luigi Banfi, Ludovico Barbiano di Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto Nathan Rogers) and was first used at the 1958 biennale.[6] The nation has been participating in the international exhibition since 1952. [7]

List of exhibitors in the Canadian Pavilion:

1952 - Emily Carr, David Milne, Goodridge Roberts, Alfred Pellan
1954 - Bertram Charles Binning, Paul-Emile Borduas, Jean-Paul Riopelle
1956 - Jack Leonard Shadbolt, Louis Archambault, Harold Town
1958 - James Wilson Morrice, Jacques de Tonnancour, Anne Kahane, Jack Nicols
1960 - Edmund Alleyne, Graham Coughtry, Jean-Paul Lemieux, Frances Loring, Albert Dumouchel
1962 - Jean-Paul Riopelle
1964 - Harold Town, Elza Mayhew
1966 - Alex Colville, Yves Gaucher, Sorel Etrog
1968 - Ulysse Comtois, Guido Molinari
1970 - Michael Snow
1972 - Gershon Iskowitz,Walter Redinger
1976 - Greg Curnoe
1978 - Ron Martin, Henry Saxe
1980 - Collin Campbell, Pierre Falardeau & Julien Poulin, General Idea, Tom Sherman, Lisa Steele
1982 - Paterson Ewen
1984 - Ian Carr-Harris, Liz Magor
1986 - Melvin Charney, Krzysztof Wodiczko
1988 - Roland Brerner, Michel Goulet
1990 - Geneviève Cadieux
1993 - Robin Collyer
1995 - Edward Poitras
1997 - Rodney Graham
1999 - Tom Dean
2001 - Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller
2003 - Jana Sterbak
2005 - Rebecca Belmore
2007 - David Altmejd
2009 - Mark Lewis
2011 - Steven Shearer
[edit] Central AsiaList of exhibitors in the Central Asia Pavilion:

51st Biennale, 2005. Art from Central Asia a Contemporary Archive.
Curators: Viktor Misiano Commissioner: Churek Djamgerchinova

The first Central Asian Pavilion was an initiative of Victor Miziano in 2005. In the following years the second pavilion was organized by Yulia Sorokina (Almaty) and the third by Beral Madra (Istanbul). Each of these exhibitions was different in format and approach. The first one – Art from Central Asia. A Contemporary Archive – aimed at placing Central Asia on the ‘map’ of international art. Along the works of invited artists, there were many video compilations of films, performance and happenings presented by Central Asian artists from the end of 90s and beginning of 2000.

Artists: Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov & Sergey Tychina, Maksim Boronilov & Roman Maskalev, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev, Muratbek Djumaliev & Gulnara Kasmalieva, Sergey Maslov, Almagul Menlibaeva, Erbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Rustam Khalfin & Yulia Tikhonova.

52nd Biennale, 2007. Muzykstan/ Media generation of contemporary artists from Central Asia
Commissioner and curator: Yulia Sorokina

Artists: Roman Maskalev, Almagul Menlibaeva & German Popov, Gulnur Mukazhanova, Alexander Nikolaev, Aleksey Rumyantsev, Alexander Ugay Mediateka: Аsia Animation, Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov, Alla Girik & Oksana Shatalova, Digsys, Natalia Dyu, Zadarnovsky Brothers, Gaukhar Kiyekbayeva, Vyacheslav Useinov, Jamol Usmanov, Aytegin Muratbek Uulu, Jamshed Kholikov, ZITABL

Muzykstan, which was curated by Yulia Sorokina, also included a ‘media library’ of various art productions that had not been shown on the international art scene yet. On the contrary, Making Interstices by Beral Madra had already focused on the exhibition of selected individual projects.

53rd Biennale, 2009. Making Interstices
Curator: Beral Madra Commissioner: Vittorio Urbani

Artists: Ermek Jaenish, Jamshed Kholikov, Anzor Salidjanov, Oksana Shatalova, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev

Official website:

54th Biennale, 2011. Lingua Franca / Франк тили
The exhibition of the Central Asia Pavilion, Lingua Franca / Франк тили presents the works of contemporary artists from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as well as a video-retrospective of Central Asian avant-garde.

Artists: Natalia Andrianova, Said Atabekov, Artyom Ernst, Galim Madanov and Zauresh Terekbay, Yerbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Marat Raiymkulov, Aleksey Rumyantsev and Alla Rumyantseva, Adis Seitaliev

Curators: Boris Chukhovich, Georgy Mamedov, Oksana Shatalova Commissioners: Asel Akmatova, Andris Brinkmanis

[edit] CzechoslovakiaDesigned by Otakar Novotný, 1926 (annex built by Boguslav Rychlinch, 1970).[6]

List of exhibitors in the Czech and Slovak Pavilion:

1993 - Jiří Surůvka, Ilona Németh (Curator: Katarína Rusnáková)
2001 - Viera Levitt
2007 - Irena Jůzová
2009 - Roman Ondák
2011 - Dominik Lang (Curator: Yvona Ferencová)
[edit] DenmarkDesigned by Carl Brummer, 1932 (annex designed by Peter Koch, 1958).[6]

The Danish Arts Council Committee for International Visual Arts serves as commissioner for the Danish Pavilion at the Biennale, where Denmark has taken part since 1895.[8]

List of exhibitors in the Danish Pavilion:

1999 - Jason Rhoades, Peter Bonde
2003 - Olafur Eliasson
2005 - Eva Koch, Joachim Koester, Peter Land, Ann Lislegaard, Gitte Villesen
2007 - Troels Wörsel, Commissioner: Holger Reenberg. Assistant Commissioner: Stinna Toft Christensen
2009 - Elmgreen and Dragset
2011 - Taryn Simon and others (Curator: Katerina Gregos)
[edit] FinlandDesigned by Alvar Aalto, 1956; restored by Fredrik Fogh with the collaboration of Elsa Makiniemi, 1976-1982. Also used by Iceland.[6]

[edit] FranceFrance will be celebrating nearly a century in its pavilion at the 2011 Venice Biennale, which was designed by Faust Finzi in 1912.[9]

List of exhibitors in the French Pavilion:

1976 - Herve Fisher, Fred Forest, Raymond Hains, Alain Jacquet, Bertrand Lavier, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Jean-Michel Sanejouand, Jean-Paul Thenot (Commissioner: Pierre Restany)
1986 - Daniel Buren
1991 - Jean Nouvel, Christian de Portzamparc, Philippe Starck
1993 - Jean-Pierre Raynaud
1995 - César
1997 - Fabrice Hyber
1999 - Huang Yong Ping, Jean-Pierre Bertrand
2001 - Pierre Huyghe
2003 - Jean-Marc Bustamante
2005 - Annette Messager
2007 - Sophie Calle
2009 - Claude Lévêque
2011 - Christian Boltanski (Curator: Jean-Hubert Martin)
[edit] GermanyThe commissioner for the German contribution to Biennial is the German Foreign Ministry. On the suggestion of an advisory committee, comprising museum directors and art experts as members, the ministry appoints a curator (formerly: commissioner) who is responsible for the selection of the artists and the organisation of the contribution. This appointment is usually for two years in succession. From 1982 until 1990 the German Democratic Republic organized its own exhibitions in the former Pavilion of Decorative Art. Germany's pavilion was redesigned by Ernst Haiger and inaugurated in 1938 by the ruling Nazi government, a fact that has inspired artistic responses from some presenters.[10] It was originally designed by Daniele Donghi in 1909.[6]

List of exhibitors in the German Pavilion:

1950 - Der Blaue Reiter (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
1952 - Die Brücke (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
1954 - Heinz Battke, Leo Cremer, Edgar Ende, Paul Klee, Karl Kunz, Oskar Schlemmer, Rudolf Schlichter, Hans Uhlmann, Mac Zimmermann (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
1958 - Karl Otto Götz, Fred Thieler, Julius Bissier, Rolf Cavael, Werner Gilles, Otto Herbert Hajek, Wassily Kandinsky, Heinrich Kirchner, Fritz Koenig, Hans Mettel, Otto Pankok, Hans Platschek, E. Andreas Rauch, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Johanna Schütz-Wolff, Emil Schumacher, K. R. H. Sonderborg, Wilhelm Wessel, Hans Wimmer (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
1960 - Willi Baumeister, Julius Bissier, Emil Cimiotti, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Rupert Stöckl, Werner Schreib, Ernst Weiers (Kurator Konrad Röthel)
1962 - Werner Gilles, HAP Grieshaber, Erich Heckel, Alfred Lörcher, Brigitte Meier-Denninghoff, Emil Schumacher (Curator: Konrad Röthel)
1964 - Joseph Faßbender, Norbert Kricke (Commissioner: Eduard Trier)
1966 - Horst Antes, Günter Haese, Ferdinand Ris (Commissioner: Eduard Trier)
1968 - Horst Janssen, Richard Oelze (Commissioner: Alfred Hentzen)
1970 - Kaspar-Thomas Lenk, Heinz Mack, Georg Karl Pfahler, Günther Uecker (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch)
1972 - Gerhard Richter (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch)
1976 - Joseph Beuys, Jochen Gertz, Reiner Ruthenbeck (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
1978 - Dieter Krieg, Ulrich Rückriem (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
1980 - Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
1982 - Hanne Darboven, Gotthard Graubner, Wolfgang Laib (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders)
1984 - Lothar Baumgarten, A. R. Penck (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders)
1986 - Sigmar Polke (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler)
1988 - Felix Droese (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler)
1990 - Bernd and Hilla Becher, Reinhard Mucha (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann)
1993 - Hans Haacke, Nam June Paik (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann)
1995 - Katharina Fritsch, Martin Honert, Thomas Ruff (Commissioner: Jean-Christophe Ammann)
1997 - Gerhard Merz, Katharina Sieverding (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden)
1999 - Rosemarie Trockel (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden)
2001 - Gregor Schneider (Commissioner: Udo Kittelmann)
2003 - Candida Höfer, Martin Kippenberger (Curator: Julian Heynen)
2005 - Thomas Scheibitz, Tino Sehgal (Curator: Julian Heynen)
2007 - Isa Genzken (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
2009 - Liam Gillick (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
2011 - Christoph Schlingensief (Curator: Susanne Gaensheimer)
[edit] Great BritainDesigned by Edwin Alfred Rickards, 1909.[6]

Since 1938 the British Council has been responsible for the British Pavilion in Venice, showing British artists at the Venice Biennale.

List of exhibitors in the British Pavilion:

1948 - Sculptures by Henry Moore. Paintings by J. M. W. Turner. Works by Ben Nicholson and John Tunnard.
1950 - Paintings by Matthew Smith and John Constable. Sculptures by Barbara Hepworth.
1952 - Paintings by Graham Sutherland and Edward Wadsworth. Sculptures by the New Aspects of British Sculpture group (Robert Adams, Kenneth Armitage, Reg Butler, Lynn Chadwick, Geoffrey Clarke, Bernard Meadows, Henry Moore, Eduardo Paolozzi, and William Turnbull).
1954 - Paintings by Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, and Ben Nicholson. Sculptures by Reg Butler relating to his Unknown Political Prisoner monument. Lithographs by Allin Braund, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe, Robert Colquhoun, William Gear, Henry Moore, Eduardo Paolozzi, Ceri Richards, William Scott, and Graham Sutherland.
1956 - Paintings by Ivon Hitchens, John Bratby, Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch, and Jack Smith. Sculptures by Lynn Chadwick.
1958 - Paintings by William Scott and S. W. Hayter. Sculptures by Kenneth Armitage, Sezione Giovani, Sandra Blow, Anthony Caro, and Alan Davie.
1960 - Mixed media works by Victor Pasmore. Paintings by Merlyn Evans, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe.
1962 - Paintings by Ceri Richards. Sculptures by Robert Adams and Hubert Dalwood.
1964 - Mixed media works by Joe Tilson. Paintings by Roger Hilton, Gwyther Irwin. Sculptures by Bernard Meadows.
1966 - Paintings by Bernard Cohen, Harold Cohen, and Robyn Denny. Sculptures by Anthony Caro and Richard Smith.
1968 - Paintings by Bridget Riley and Francis Bacon. Sculptures by Philip King. 'Ways of Contemporary Research' exhibition with works by Anthony Caro, David Hockney, Ben Nicholson, Eduardo Paolozzi, Victor Pasmore, Graham Sutherland.
1970 - Sculptures by Richard Smith.
1972 - Paintings by John Walker. Sculptures by William G. Tucker. 'Grafica sperimentale per la stampa' exhibition with works by Pentagram (Alan Fletcher, Colin Forbes, Mervyn Kurlansky), Michael English, John Gorham, F. H. K. Henrion, Lou Klein, Enzo Ragazzini. 'Il Libro come luogo di ricerca' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George and Victor Burgin.
1976 - Works by Richard Long, Richard Hamilton, Victor Pasmore, David Mackay, Alison and Peter Smithson, James Stirling, John Davies, Phillip Hyde, Anne Rawcliffe-King, Yolanda Teuten.
1978 - Photography by Mark Boyle. 'Six Stations for Art-Nature. The Nature of Art' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George, Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Richard Long, and Malcolm Morley. 'Art and Cinema' by Anthony McCall.
1980 - Works by Tim Head and Nicholas Pope. 'Art in the Seventies' exhibition with works by Bruce McLean, Kenneth Martin, Television Exhibitions, Barry Flanagan, Gilbert and George, Hamish Fulton, and Richard Long. 'Art in the Seventies. Open 80' exhibition with works by Roger Ackling, Tony Cragg, and Leonard McComb.
1982 - Works by Barry Flanagan. 'Aperto 82' exhibition with works by Catherine Blacker, Stephen Cox, Antony Gormley, Tim Head, Shirazeh Houshiary, Anish Kapoor, Christopher Le Brun, Judy Pfaff, Stephen Willats, and Bill Woodrow. 'Arte come arte: persistenza dell’opera - Mostra internazionale' exhibition with works by Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud, Ronald Kitaj, and Raymond Mason.
1984 - Works by Howard Hodgkin. 'Arte allo Specchio' exhibition with works by Peter Greenaway and Christopher Le Brun. 'Arte, Ambiente, Scena' exhibition with works by Judy Pfaff. 'Aperto 84' exhibition with works by Terry Atkinson, Helen Chadwick, Rose Garrard, Glenys Johnson, Paul Richards, Amikam Toren, and Kerry Treng.
1986 - Works by Frank Auerbach. 'Aperto 86' exhibition with works by Lisa Milroy, John Murphy, Avis Newman, Jacqueline Poncelet, Boyd Webb, and Richard Wilson. 'Art e Scienza' exhibition with works by Eric Bainbridge, Alastair Brotchie, Anthony Caro, Leonora Carrington, Ithell Colquhoun, Stephen Cox, Tony Cragg, Neil Cummings, Brian Eno, Barry Flanagan, Jeremy Gardiner, Eric Gidney, Jocelyn Godwin, Anthony Gormley, Paul Hayward, Allen Jones, Liliane Lijn, Peter Lowe, Kyeran Lyons, Conroy Maddox, Thomas Major, Kenneth Martin, Mary Martin, Alastair Morton, Hugh O'Donnell, Andrew Owens, Digital Pictures, Mike Punt, Bridget Riley, Kurt Schwitters, Peter Sedgley, Jeffrey Steele, Paul Thomas, Philip West, and Alison Wilding.
1988 - Sculptures by Tony Cragg. 'Aperto 88' exhibition with works by Tony Bevan, Hannah Collins, Grenville Davey, Andy Goldsworthy, Simon Linke, Peter Nadin, and Thoms William Puckey. 'Scultori ai Giardini' exhibition with works by Lynn Chadwick, Anthony Core, Philip King, and Joe Tilson.
1990 - Works by Anish Kapoor. 'Three Scottish Sculptors' exhibition with works by David Mach, Arthur Watson, and Kate Whiteford. 'Aperto 90' with works by Eric Bainbridge, David Leapman, Patrick Joseph McBride, Therese Oulton, Fiona Rae, and Anthony Wilson. 'Fluxus' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic, Brion Gysin, Dick Higgins, and Robin Page.
1993 - Works by Richard Hamilton. 'Aperto 93' exhibition with works by Henry Bond, Christine Borland, Angela Bulloch, Mat Collishaw, Damien Hirst, Simon Patterson, Vong Phaophanit, Steven Pippin, Julie Roberts, and Georgina Starr. 'Punti dell'arte' exhibition with works by Anish Kapoor. 'Slittamenti' exhibition with works by Peter Greenaway and Derek Jarman. 'Macchine della pace' exhibition with works by Tony Cragg, Shirazeh Houshiary, and Julian Opie. 'La coesistenza dell'arte' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic. 'Art against Aids. Venezia 93' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George, Frank Auerbach, Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon, Shirazeh Houshiary, Anish Kapoor, Ronald Kitaj, Malcolm Morley, Ray Smith, and Rachel Whiteread. 'Tresors de Voyage' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic, Shirazeh Houshiary, and Anish Kapoor.
1995 - Works by Leon Kossoff. 'General Release: Young British Artists' exhibition with works by Fiona Banner, Dinos Chapman, Jake Chapman, Adam Chodzko, Matthew Dalziel, and Louise Scullion, Cerith Wyn Evans, Elizabeth Wright, Tacita Dean, Lucy Gunning, Sam Taylor-Wood, Jane and Louise Wilson, Jaki Irvine, Gary Hume, Douglas Gordan, Tom Gidley, and Ceal Floyer.
1997 - Sculptures by Rachel Whiteread.
1999 - Paintings by Gary Hume.
2001 - Works by Mark Wallinger.
2003 - Paintings by Chris Ofili.
2005 - Gilbert and George
2007 - Painting and sculpture by Tracey Emin
2009 - Video installation by Steve McQueen (artist)
2011 - Mike Nelson
[edit] GreeceDesigned by Brenno Del Giudice, M. Papandre, 1934.[6]

List of exhibitors in the Greek Pavilion:

1950 - Bouzianis Giorgos
2007 - Lucas Samaras
2011 - Diohandi
[edit] HungaryDesigned by Géza Rintel Maróti, 1909 (restored by Agost Benkhard, 1958).[6]

List of exhibitors in the Hungarian Pavilion:

1968 - Ignác Kokas, Béla Kondor, Tibor Vilt
1982 - Erzsébet Scháar (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
1984 - Imre Varga, György Vadász (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
1986 - Imre Bak, Ákos Birkás, Károly Kelemen, István Nádler (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
1988 - Imre Bukta, Sándor Pinczehelyi, Géza Samu (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
1990 - László Fehér (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
1993 - Joseph Kosuth, Viktor Lois (Commissioner: Katalin Keserü)
1995 - György Jovánovics (Commissioner: Márta Kovalovszky)
1997 - Róza El-Hassan, Judit Herskó, Éva Köves (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
1999 - Imre Bukta, Emese Benczúr, Attila Csörgö, Gábor Erdélyi, Mariann Imre (Curator: János Sturcz)
2001 - Antal Lakner, Tamás Komoróczky (Curator: Júlia Fabényi, Barnabás Bencsik)
2003 - Little Warsaw (András Gálik, Bálint Havas) (Curator: Zsolt Petrányi)
2005 - Balázs Kicsiny (Curator: Péter Fitz)
2007 - Andreas Fogarasi (Curator: Katalin Timár)
2009 - Péter Forgács (Curator: András Rényi)
2011 - Hajnal Németh (Curator: Miklós Peternák)
[edit] IcelandIceland currently uses the Finnish pavilion.[6]

[edit] IndiaIn 2011, India was featured for the first time after 116 years, with the support of the culture ministry and the organizational participation of the Lalit Kala Akademi.[11] Biennale organizers have reportedly invited the country to participate in past years, but the government has declined until now — a decision attributed to a lack of communication between the culture ministry and the country's National Gallery of Modern Art. [12]

2011 - Mriganka Madhukaliya, Sonal Jain, Zarina Hashmi, Gigi Scaria, Praneet Soi (Curator: Ranjit Hoskote)
[edit] IraqIn 2011, Iraq returned to the Biennale for the first time after a 35-year abscence. The title of the Iraq Pavilion was "Acqua Ferita" (translated as "Wounded Water"). Six important Iraqi artists from two generations interpreted the theme of water in their works, which made up the exhibition: Adel Abidin, Halim Al Karim, Ahmed Alsoudani, Ali Assaf, Azad Nanakeli, and Walid Siti.

[edit] IrelandList of exhibitors in the Irish Pavilion:

1950 - Norah McGuinness, Nano Reid
1956 - Louis le Brocquy, Hilary Heron
1960 - Patrick Scott
1993 - Dorothy Cross, Willie Doherty
1995 - Kathy Prendergast
1997 - Jaki Irvine, Alistair McLennan
1999 - Anne Tallentire
2001 - Siobhan Hapaska, Grace Weir
2003 - Katie Holten (Commissioner: Valerie Connor)
2005 - Stephen Brandes, Mark Garry, Ronan McCrea, Isabel Nolan, Sarah Pierce, Walker and Walker (Commissioner: Sarah Glennie)
2007 - Gerard Byrne (Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick)
2009 - Sarah Browne, Gareth Kennedy, Kennedy Browne
2011 - Corban Walker (Commissioner: Emily-Jane Kirwan)
[edit] IsraelDesigned by Zeev Rechter, 1952 (modified by Fredrik Fogh, 1966).[6]

Partial list of exhibitors at the Israeli Pavilion:

1990 - Yaacov Dorchin
1995 - Joshua Neustein, Uri Tzaig (Curator: Gideon Ofrat)
1997 - Yossi Berger, Miriam Cabessa, Sigalit Landau
2005 - Guy Ben-Ner
2007 - Yehudit Sasportas
2009 - Raffi Lavie
2011 - Sigalit Landau
[edit] Italy"Palazzo Pro Arte": Enrico Trevisanato, façade by Marius De Maria and Bartholomeo Bezzi, 1895; new façade by Guido Cirilli, 1914; "Padiglione Italia", present façade by Duilio Torres 1932. The pavilion has a sculpture garden by Carlo Scarpa, 1952 and the "Auditorium Pastor" by Valeriano Pastor, 1977.[6]

Partial list of exhibitors at the Italian Pavilion:

1999 - Monica Bonvicini, Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi
2001 - Alighiero Boetti
2003 - Charles Avery, Avish Khebrehzadeh, Sara Rossi, Carola Spadoni
2005 - Carolina Antich, Manfredi Beninati, Loris Cecchini, Lara Favaretto
2007 - Giuseppe Penone, Francesco Vezzoli
2009 - Matteo Basilé, Manfredi Beninati, Valerio Berruti, Bertozzi&Casoni, Nicola Bolla, Sandro Chia, Marco Cingolani, Giacomo Costa, Aron Demetz, Roberto Floreani, Daniele Galliano, Marco Lodola, MASBEDO, Gian Marco Montesano, Davide Nido, Luca Pignatelli, Elisa Sighicelli, Sissi, Nicola Verlato e Silvio Wolf
2011 - Vanessa Beecroft, Michelangelo Pistoletto
[edit] JapanDesigned by Takamasa Yoshizaka, 1956.[6] Japan has the longest history at the Venice Biennale compared to any other Asian nation.

List of exhibitors in the Japanese Pavilion:

1970 - Nobuo Sekine
1993 - Yayoi Kusama
1997 - Rei Naito
2003 - Yutaka Sone, Motohiko Odani
2005 - Ishiuchi Miyako
2007 - Masao Okabe
2011 - Tabaimo (Curator: Yuka Uematsu)
[edit] NetherlandsIn 1914, the Swedish Pavilion, designed by Gustav Ferdninand Boberg, was handed over to the Netherlands. In 1954 the Dutch pavilion was demolished and reconstructed on the same site, designed by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld in 1954.[6]

Since 1995, the Mondriaan Foundation has been responsible for the Dutch entry at the Biennale di Venezia, appointing a curator for each entry.

Dutch artists and curators of previous editions:

1995 - Marlene Dumas, Maria Roosen, Marijke van Warmerdam (Curator: Chris Dercon)
1997 - Aernout Mik, Willem Oorebeek (Curators: Leontine Coelewij, Arno van Roosmalen)
1999 - Daan van Golden (Curator: Karel Schampers)
2001 - Liza May Post (Curator: Jaap Guldemond)
2003 - Carlos Amorales, Alicia Framis, Meschac Gaba, Jeanne van Heeswijk, Erik van Lieshout (Curator: Rein Wolfs)
2005 - Jeroen De Rijke, Willem De Rooij (Curator: Martijn van Nieuwenhuyzen)
2007 - Aernout Mik (Curator Maria Hlavajova)
2009 - Fiona Tan (Curator: Saskia Bos)
2011 - Barbara Visser, Ernst van der Hoeven, Herman Verkerk, Johannes Schwartz, Joke Robaard, Maureen Mooren, Paul Kuipers, Sanneke van Hassel, Yannis Kyriakides (Curator: Guus Beumer)
[edit] PolandList of exhibitors in the Polish Pavilion:

2007 - Monika Sosnowska
2011 - Yael Bartana
[edit] RussiaDesigned by Aleksej V. Scusev, 1914.[6]

List of exhibitors in the Russian Pavilion:

2011 - Andrei Monastyrsky, Elena Elagina, Sabina Hensgen, Igor Makarevich, Nikolai Pantikov, Sergei Romashko (Curator: Boris Groys)
[edit] ScandinaviaDesigned by Sverre Fehn, 1962 (small annex built by Fredrik Fogh, 1987).[6]

The cooperation between Finland, Norway and Sweden in Venice was initiated in 1962 after the completion of the Nordic Pavilion. The responsibility for representation in each Biennale alternates between the collaborating countries.

List of exhibitors in the Nordic Pavilion:

1986 - Silja Rantanen
1997 - Henrik Hakaanson, Mark Dion, Marianna Uutininen, Mariko Mori, Sven Påhlsson
2001 - Leif Elggren, Carl Michael von Hausswolff, Anders Tomren
2005 - Miriam Bäckström, Carsten Höller
2007 - Maaria Wirkkala (Curator: René Block)
2009 - Elmgreen and Dragset, Klara Lidén, Wolfgang Tillmans
2011 - Fia Backström, Andreas Eriksson (Curator: Magnus af Petersens)
[edit] South KoreaDesigned by Seok Chul Kim and Franco Mancuso, 1995.[6]

South Korea has participated in the Venice Biennale since 1995.

List of exhibitors in the South Korean Pavilion:

1995 - Yoon Hyong Keun, Kwak Hoon, Kim In Kyum, Jheon Soocheon (Commissioner: Il Lee)
1997 - Hyungwoo Lee, Ik-joong Kang (Curator: Oh Kwang Soo)
1999 - Lee Bul, Noh Sang-Kyoon (Curator: Misook Song)
2001 - Michael Joo, Do-Ho Suh (Commissioner: Kyung-mee Park)
2003 - Whang In Kie, Bahc Yiso, Chung Seoyoung (Commissioner: Kim Hong-Hee)
2007 - Hyungkoo Lee (Commissioner: Soyeon Ahn)
2009 - Haegue Yang
2011 - Lee Yong-baek (Commissioner: Yun Chea-gab)
[edit] SpainDesigned by Javier de Luque, 1922 (façade restored by Joaquin Vaquero Palacios, 1952).[6]

List of exhibitors in the Spanish Pavilion:

1958 - Eduardo Chillida
1984 - Antoni Clavé
1993 - Antoni Tapies
1999 - Manolo Valdés, Esther Ferrer (Curator: David Pérez)
2001 - Ana Laura Aláez, Javier Pérez (Curator: Estrella de Diego)
2003 - Santiago Sierra (Curator: Rosa Martínez)
2005 - Antoni Muntadas (Curator: Bartomeu Marí)
2007 - Manuel Vilariño, José Luis Guerín, “Los Torreznos”, Rubén Ramos (Curator: Alberto Ruiz de Samaniego)
2009 - Miquel Barceló (Curator: Enrique Juncosa)
2011 - Dora García (Curator: Katya García-Antón)
[edit] SwitzerlandDesigned by Bruno Giacometti, 1952.[6]

List of exhibitors in the Swiss Pavilion:

1982 - Dieter Roth
1999 - Roman Signer
2001 - Urs Lueth, Norbert Möslang, Andy Guhl
2003 - Emmanuelle Antille, Gerda Steiner, Jörg Lenzlinger
2005 - Pipilotti Rist, Ingrid Wildi, Gianni Motti, Shahryar Nashat, Marco Poloni
2007 - Ugo Rondinone
2009 - Silvia Bächli, Fabrice Gygi
2011 - Thomas Hirschhorn (Curator: Andrea Thal)
[edit] United States of America
U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, circa 1933.The United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was constructed in 1930[13] by the Grand Central Art Galleries, a nonprofit artists' cooperative established in 1922 by Walter Leighton Clark together with John Singer Sargent, Edmund Greacen, and others.[14] As stated in the Galleries' 1934 catalog, the organization's goal was to "give a broader field to American art; to exhibit in a larger way to a more numerous audience, not in New York alone but throughout the country, thus displaying to the world the inherent value which our art undoubtedly possesses."[15]

Having worked tirelessly to promote American art at home the 1920s, in 1930 Walter Leighton Clark and the Grand Central Art Galleries spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[16] Up until then there was no place at the Biennale dedicated to American art, and Clark felt that it was crucial to establishing the credentials of the nation's artists abroad.[17] The pavilion's architects were William Adams Delano, who also designed the Grand Central Art Galleries, and Chester Holmes Aldrich. The purchase of the land, design, and construction was paid for by the galleries and personally supervised by Clark. As he wrote in the 1934 catalog:

"Pursuing our purpose of putting American art prominently before the world, the directors a few years ago appropriated the sum of $25,000 for the erection of an exhibition building in Venice on the grounds of the International Biennial. Messrs. Delano and Aldrich generously donated the plans for this building which is constructed of Istrian marble and pink brick and more than holds its own with the twenty-five other buildings in the Park owned by the various European governments."[15]

The pavilion, owned and operated by the galleries, opened on May 4, 1930. Approximately 90 paintings and 12 sculptures were selected by Clark for the opening exhibition. Artists featured included Max Boehm, Hector Caser, Lillian Westcott Hale, Edward Hopper, Abraham Poole, Julius Rolshoven, Joseph Pollett, Eugene Savage, Elmer Shofeld, Ofelia Keelan, and African-American artist Henry Tanner. U.S. Ambassador John W. Garrett opened the show together with the Duke of Bergamo.[13]

The Grand Central Art Galleries operated the U.S. Pavilion until 1954, when it was sold to the Museum of Modern Art. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s shows were organized by the Modern, Art Institute of Chicago, and Baltimore Museum of Art. The Modern withdrew from the Biennale in 1964, and the United States Information Agency ran the Pavilion until it was sold to the Guggenheim Museum courtesy of funds provided by the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.[18]

Since 1986 the Peggy Guggenheim Collection has worked with the United States Information Agency, the US Department of State and the Fund for Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions in the organization of the visual arts exhibitions at the US Pavilion, while the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation has organized the comparable shows at the Architecture Biennales. Every two years museum curators from across the U.S. detail their visions for the American pavilion in proposals that are reviewed by the NEA Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions (FACIE), a group comprising curators, museum directors and artists who then submit their recommendations to the public-private Fund for United States Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions.[19] Traditionally the endowment's selection committee has chosen a proposal submitted by a museum or curator, but in 2004 it simply chose an artist who in turn has nominated a curator, later approved by the State Department.[20]

[edit] ExhibitorsPartial list of exhibitors at the United States Pavilion:[21]

1930 - Edward Hopper, Julius Rolshoven, Eugene Savage, Henry Tanner.[13]
1950 (26th) - Arshile Gorky, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock
1954 (28th) - Willem de Kooning, Ben Shahn
1960 (30th) - Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Franz Kline, Theodore Roszak
1962 (31st) - Jan Müller, Louise Nevelson
1964 (32nd) - John Chamberlain, Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella
1966 (33rd) - Helen Frankenthaler, Ellsworth Kelly, Roy Lichtenstein, Jules Olitski
1968 (34th) - Leonard Baskin, Edwin Dickinson, Richard Diebenkorn, Red Grooms, James McGarrell, Reuben Nakian, Fairfield Porter
1972 (36th) - Diane Arbus, Ronald Davis, Richard Estes, Sam Gilliam, Jim Nutt, Keith Sonnier
1976 (37th) - Richard Artschwager, Charles Garabedian, Robert Irwin, Donald Judd, Agnes Martin, Robert Motherwell, Ed Ruscha, Robert Ryman, Joel Shapiro, Richard Tuttle, Andy Warhol, H.C. Westermann
1978 (38th) - Harry Callahan, Richard Diebenkorn
1980 (39th) - Vito Acconci, Christo, Laurie Anderson and others
1982 (40th) - Jess, Robert Smithson (posthumous), Richard Pousette-Dart
1984 (41st) - Eric Fischl, Charles Garabedian, and others
1986 (42nd) - Isamu Noguchi
1988 (43rd) - Jasper Johns
1990 (44th) - Jenny Holzer - Mother and Child
1993 (45th) - Louise Bourgeois
1995 (46th) - Bill Viola - Buried Secrets
1997 (47th) - Robert Colescott
1999 (48th) - Ann Hamilton
2001 (49th) - Robert Gober
2003 (50th) - Fred Wilson
2005 (51st) - Ed Ruscha
2007 (52nd) - Félix González-Torres (posthumous)
2009 (53rd) - Bruce Nauman (Curator: Carlos Basualdo)
2011 (54th) - Allora & Calzadilla (Commissioner: Lisa Freiman)
[edit] UruguayEx-warehouse of the Biennale, 1958, ceded to the government of Uruguay, 1960.[6]

List of exhibitors in the Uruguayan Pavilion:

1954 - José Cuneo, Severino Pose
1956 - Joaquín Torres García
1960 - Zoma Baitler, Washington Barcala, Norberto Berdia, José Cuneo, José Echave, Adolfo Halty, Augusto Torres, Vicente Martìn, Julio Verdier (Commissioner: Jorge Pàez Vilaró)
1962 - Germán Cabrera, Juan Ventayol
1964 - Jorge Damiani, José Gamarra, Nelson Ramos, Jorge Páez Vilaró
1968 - Antonio Frasconi
1986 - Ernesto Aroztegui, Clever Lara
1988 - Luis Camnitzer
1990 - Gonzalo Fonseca
1993 - Águeda Di Cancro
1995 - Ignacio Iturria
1997 - Nelson Ramos
1999 - Ricardo Pascale
2001 - Rimer Cardillo (Commissioner: Cléver Lara)
2003 - Pablo Atchugarry (Curator: Luciano Caramel)
2005 - Lacy Duarte (Commissioners: Alicia Haber, Olga Larnaudie)
2007 - Ernesto Vila (Commissioner: Enrique Aguerre)
2009 - Raquel Bessio, Juan Burgos, Pablo Uribe (Commissioners: Patricia Bentancur, Alfredo Torres)
2011 - Alejandro Cesarco, Magela Ferrero (Curator: Clio Bugel)
[edit] VenezuelaDesigned by Carlo Scarpa, 1956.[6]

List of exhibitors in the Venezuelan Pavilion:

1964 - Jesús Rafael Soto
1970 - Carlos Cruz-Diez, Jesús Rafael Soto
1980 - Regulo Pérez
1988 - Jacobo Borges
1990 - Julio Pacheco Rivas
2005 - Santiago Pol (Commissioner: Vivian Rivas Gingerich)
2007 - Antonio Briceño, Vincent & Feria (Commissioner: Zuleiva Vivas)
2009 - Claudio Perna, Antonieta Sosa, Alejandro Otero
2011 - Francisco Bassim, Clemencia Labin, Yoshi (Curator: Luis Hurtado)
[edit] Other“Venezia” Group of Pavilions - Brenno Del Giudice (Arti Decorative pavilion 1932); other pavilions (Yugoslavia, Romania, Latin America), 1938; Egypt was assigned a pavilion in 1952.[6]
Ticket Office - Carlo Scarpa, 1951.[6]
Book Shop - James Stirling, 1991.[6]

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